Artificial pancreas to ease the Type 1 diabetic life

Artificial Pancreas

This type of new technology is focused to the personalized medicine, which the maker company defines it as “the tailoring of medical treatment to the individual characteristics of each patient.

This artificial technology will be at the market in January 2017 and its cost will be between 5000 $ and 8000$ and this artificial pancreas (MiniMed 670G) has been recently approved by FDA.

Relying on what Dr. Jeffrey Shuren, director of the FDA’s medical device division, said; “the device will offer type 1 diabetics “greater freedom to live their lives without having to consistently and manually monitor baseline glucose levels and administer insulin.

Derek Rapp chief executive officer of the juvenile diabetes research foundation, said that they have spent $116 million on research in the artificial pancreas field. To make the device which will mean the peace of mind, in recognizing in a great majority of the time (Can measure blood glucose every 5 minutes) that the person will be in normal blood sugar range.

What is the pancreas?

The pancreas is an organ in the body that secretes several hormones, including insulin and glucagon, as well as digestive enzymes that help break down food. Insulin helps cells in the body take up glucose (sugar) from the blood to use for energy, which lowers blood glucose levels. Glucagon causes the liver to release stored glucose, which raises blood glucose levels.

Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas produces little or none of the insulin needed to regulate blood glucose. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or the body becomes resistant to the insulin that is present. Patients with type 1 diabetes and some patients with type 2 diabetes inject insulin, and occasionally glucagon, to regulate their blood glucose, which is critical to lower their risk of long-term complications such as blindness, kidney failure and cardiovascular disease.

When managing diabetes, many patients must vigilantly test blood glucose with a glucose meter, calculate insulin doses, and administer necessary insulin doses with a needle or insulin infusion pump to lower blood glucose. Glucagon may be injected in an emergency to treat severe low blood glucose. Some patients benefit from additional monitoring with a continuous glucose monitoring system.

What is an artificial pancreas device system?

The Artificial Pancreas Device System is a system of devices that closely mimics the glucose regulating function of a healthy pancreas.

Most Artificial Pancreas Device Systems consists of three types of devices already familiar to many people with diabetes: a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGM) and an insulin infusion pump. A blood glucose device (such as a glucose meter) is used to calibrate the CGM.

A computer-controlled algorithm connects the CGM and insulin infusion pump to allow continuous communication between the two devices. Sometimes an artificial pancreas device system is referred to as a “closed-loop” system, an “automated insulin delivery” system, or an “autonomous system for glycemic control.”

An Artificial Pancreas Device System will not only monitors glucose levels in the body but also automatically adjusts the delivery of insulin to reduce high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) and minimize the incidence of low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) with little or no input from the patient.

According FDA the Device is composed with 4 parts:

  1. Continuous Glucose Monitor (CGM).A CGM provides a steady stream of information that reflects the patient’s blood glucose levels. A sensor placed under the patient’s skin (subcutaneously) measures the glucose in the fluid around the cells (interstitial fluid) which is associated with blood glucose levels. A small transmitter sends information to a receiver. A CGM continuously displays both an estimate of blood glucose levels and their direction and rate of change of these estimates.
    • Blood Glucose Device (BGD).Currently, to get the most accurate estimates of blood glucose possible from a CGM, the patient needs to periodically calibrate the CGM using a blood glucose measurement from a BGD; therefore, the BGD still plays a critical role in the proper management of patients with an APDS. However, over time, we anticipate that improved CGM performance may do away with the need for periodic blood glucose checks with a BGD.
  2. Control algorithm. A control algorithm is software embedded in an external processor (controller) that receives information from the CGM and performs a series of mathematical calculations. Based on these calculations, the controller sends dosing instructions to the infusion pump. The control algorithm can be run on any number of devices including an insulin pump, computer or cellular phone. The FDA does not require the control algorithm to reside on the insulin pump.
  3. Insulin pump.Based on the instructions sent by the controller, an infusion pump adjusts the insulin delivery to the tissue under the skin.
  4. The Patient.The patient is an important part of Artificial Pancreas Delivery System. The concentration of glucose circulating in the patient’s blood is constantly changing. It is affected by the patient’s diet, activity level, and how his or her body metabolizes insulin and other substances.

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